Setup and Config
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Inspection and Comparison
- Command-line interface conventions
- Everyday Git
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git worktree add [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [--lock] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<commit-ish>] git worktree list [--porcelain] git worktree lock [--reason <string>] <worktree> git worktree move <worktree> <new-path> git worktree prune [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>] git worktree remove [-f] <worktree> git worktree repair [<path>…] git worktree unlock <worktree>
Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.
A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check
out more than one branch at a time. With
git worktree add a new working
tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a
"linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by
git-init or git-clone.
A repository has one main working tree (if it’s not a
bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees. When you are done
with a linked working tree, remove it with
git worktree remove.
In its simplest form,
git worktree add <path> automatically creates a
new branch whose name is the final component of
<path>, which is
convenient if you plan to work on a new topic. For instance,
worktree add ../hotfix creates new branch
hotfix and checks it out at
../hotfix. To instead work on an existing branch in a new working
git worktree add <path> <branch>. On the other hand, if you
just plan to make some experimental changes or do testing without
disturbing existing development, it is often convenient to create a
throwaway working tree not associated with any branch. For instance,
git worktree add -d <path> creates a new working tree with a detached
HEAD at the same commit as the current branch.
If a working tree is deleted without using
git worktree remove, then
its associated administrative files, which reside in the repository
(see "DETAILS" below), will eventually be removed automatically (see
gc.worktreePruneExpire in git-config), or you can run
git worktree prune in the main or any linked working tree to
clean up any stale administrative files.
If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share
which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from
being pruned by issuing the
git worktree lock command, optionally
--reason to explain why the working tree is locked.
- add <path> [<commit-ish>]
<commit-ish>into it. The new working directory is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working directory specific files such as
index, etc. As a convenience,
<commit-ish>may be a bare "
-", which is synonymous with
<commit-ish>is a branch name (call it
<branch>) and is not found, and neither
--detachare used, but there does exist a tracking branch in exactly one remote (call it
<remote>) with a matching name, treat as equivalent to:
$ git worktree add --track -b <branch> <path> <remote>/<branch>
If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by the
checkout.defaultRemoteconfiguration variable, we’ll use that one for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the
<branch>isn’t unique across all remotes. Set it to e.g.
checkout.defaultRemote=originto always checkout remote branches from there if
<branch>is ambiguous but exists on the
originremote. See also
<commit-ish>is omitted and neither
--detachused, then, as a convenience, the new working tree is associated with a branch (call it
<branch>) named after
$(basename <path>). If
<branch>doesn’t exist, a new branch based on
HEADis automatically created as if
-b <branch>was given. If
<branch>does exist, it will be checked out in the new working tree, if it’s not checked out anywhere else, otherwise the command will refuse to create the working tree (unless
List details of each working tree. The main working tree is listed first, followed by each of the linked working trees. The output details include whether the working tree is bare, the revision currently checked out, the branch currently checked out (or "detached HEAD" if none), "locked" if the worktree is locked, "prunable" if the worktree can be pruned by
If a working tree is on a portable device or network share which is not always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock with
Move a working tree to a new location. Note that the main working tree or linked working trees containing submodules cannot be moved with this command. (The
git worktree repaircommand, however, can reestablish the connection with linked working trees if you move the main working tree manually.)
Prune working tree information in
Remove a working tree. Only clean working trees (no untracked files and no modification in tracked files) can be removed. Unclean working trees or ones with submodules can be removed with
--force. The main working tree cannot be removed.
- repair [<path>…]
Repair working tree administrative files, if possible, if they have become corrupted or outdated due to external factors.
For instance, if the main working tree (or bare repository) is moved, linked working trees will be unable to locate it. Running
repairin the main working tree will reestablish the connection from linked working trees back to the main working tree.
Similarly, if a linked working tree is moved without using
git worktree move, the main working tree (or bare repository) will be unable to locate it. Running
repairwithin the recently-moved working tree will reestablish the connection. If multiple linked working trees are moved, running
repairfrom any working tree with each tree’s new
<path>as an argument, will reestablish the connection to all the specified paths.
If both the main working tree and linked working trees have been moved manually, then running
repairin the main working tree and specifying the new
<path>of each linked working tree will reestablish all connections in both directions.
Unlock a working tree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.
addrefuses to create a new working tree when
<commit-ish>is a branch name and is already checked out by another working tree, or if
<path>is already assigned to some working tree but is missing (for instance, if
<path>was deleted manually). This option overrides these safeguards. To add a missing but locked working tree path, specify
moverefuses to move a locked working tree unless
--forceis specified twice. If the destination is already assigned to some other working tree but is missing (for instance, if
<new-path>was deleted manually), then
--forceallows the move to proceed; use
--forcetwice if the destination is locked.
removerefuses to remove an unclean working tree unless
--forceis used. To remove a locked working tree, specify
- -b <new-branch>
- -B <new-branch>
add, create a new branch named
<commit-ish>, and check out
<new-branch>into the new working tree. If
<commit-ish>is omitted, it defaults to
HEAD. By default,
-brefuses to create a new branch if it already exists.
-Boverrides this safeguard, resetting
HEADin the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD" in git-checkout.
--no-checkoutcan be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations, such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout" in git-read-tree.
worktree add <path>, without
<commit-ish>, instead of creating a new branch from
HEAD, if there exists a tracking branch in exactly one remote matching the basename of
<path>, base the new branch on the remote-tracking branch, and mark the remote-tracking branch as "upstream" from the new branch.
This can also be set up as the default behaviour by using the
When creating a new branch, if
<commit-ish>is a branch, mark it as "upstream" from the new branch. This is the default if
<commit-ish>is a remote-tracking branch. See
--trackin git-branch for details.
Keep the working tree locked after creation. This is the equivalent of
git worktree lockafter
git worktree add, but without a race condition.
prune, do not remove anything; just report what it would remove.
list, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts. This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user configuration. See below for details.
add, suppress feedback messages.
prune, report all removals.
list, output additional information about worktrees (see below).
- --expire <time>
prune, only expire unused working trees older than
list, annotate missing working trees as prunable if they are older than
- --reason <string>
lock, an explanation why the working tree is locked.
Working trees can be identified by path, either relative or absolute.
If the last path components in the working tree’s path is unique among working trees, it can be used to identify a working tree. For example if you only have two working trees, at
def/ghiis enough to point to the former working tree.
In multiple working trees, some refs may be shared between all working
trees and some refs are local. One example is
HEAD which is different for each
working tree. This section is about the sharing rules and how to access
refs of one working tree from another.
In general, all pseudo refs are per working tree and all refs starting
refs/ are shared. Pseudo refs are ones like
HEAD which are
$GIT_DIR instead of inside
$GIT_DIR/refs. There are
exceptions, however: refs inside
refs/worktree are not
Refs that are per working tree can still be accessed from another
working tree via two special paths,
former gives access to per-working tree refs of the main working tree,
while the latter to all linked working trees.
resolve to the same value as the main working tree’s
refs/bisect/good respectively. Similarly,
worktrees/bar/refs/bisect/bad are the same as
By default, the repository
config file is shared across all working
trees. If the config variables
already present in the config file, they will be applied to the main
working trees only.
In order to have configuration specific to working trees, you can turn
worktreeConfig extension, e.g.:
$ git config extensions.worktreeConfig true
In this mode, specific configuration stays in the path pointed by
rev-parse --git-path config.worktree. You can add or update
configuration in this file with
git config --worktree. Older Git
versions will refuse to access repositories with this extension.
Note that in this file, the exception for
is gone. If they exist in
$GIT_DIR/config, you must move
them to the
config.worktree of the main working tree. You may also
take this opportunity to review and move other configuration that you
do not want to share to all working trees:
core.bareshould never be shared
core.sparseCheckoutis recommended per working tree, unless you are sure you always use sparse checkout for all working trees.
Each linked working tree has a private sub-directory in the repository’s
$GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory’s name is usually
the base name of the linked working tree’s path, possibly appended with a
number to make it unique. For example, when
git worktree add /path/other/test-next next creates the linked
working tree in
/path/other/test-next and also creates a
$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next directory (or
test-next is already taken).
Within a linked working tree,
$GIT_DIR is set to point to this private
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next in the example) and
$GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main working tree’s
/path/main/.git). These settings are made in a
.git file located at
the top directory of the linked working tree.
Path resolution via
git rev-parse --git-path uses either
$GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the
linked working tree
git rev-parse --git-path HEAD returns
rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master uses
$GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns
since refs are shared across all working trees, except
See gitrepository-layout for more information. The rule of
thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to
$GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something
git rev-parse --git-path to get the final path.
If you manually move a linked working tree, you need to update the
in the entry’s directory. For example, if a linked working tree is moved
/newpath/test-next and its
.git file points to
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next, then update
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir to reference
instead. Better yet, run
git worktree repair to reestablish the connection
To prevent a
$GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which
can be useful in some situations, such as when the
entry’s working tree is stored on a portable device), use the
git worktree lock command, which adds a file named
locked to the entry’s directory. The file contains the reason in
plain text. For example, if a linked working tree’s
.git file points
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next then a file named
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked will prevent the
test-next entry from being pruned. See
gitrepository-layout for details.
extensions.worktreeConfig is enabled, the config file
.git/worktrees/<id>/config.worktree is read after
worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the
details on a single line with columns. For example:
$ git worktree list /path/to/bare-source (bare) /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master] /path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
The command also shows annotations for each working tree, according to its state. These annotations are:
locked, if the working tree is locked.
prunable, if the working tree can be pruned via
git worktree prune.
$ git worktree list /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master] /path/to/locked-worktreee acbd5678 (brancha) locked /path/to/prunable-worktree 5678abc (detached HEAD) prunable
For these annotations, a reason might also be available and this can be seen using the verbose mode. The annotation is then moved to the next line indented followed by the additional information.
$ git worktree list --verbose /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master] /path/to/locked-worktree-no-reason abcd5678 (detached HEAD) locked /path/to/locked-worktree-with-reason 1234abcd (brancha) locked: working tree path is mounted on a portable device /path/to/prunable-worktree 5678abc1 (detached HEAD) prunable: gitdir file points to non-existent location
Note that the annotation is moved to the next line if the additional information is available, otherwise it stays on the same line as the working tree itself.
The porcelain format has a line per attribute. Attributes are listed with a
label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like
detached) are listed as a label only, and are present only
if the value is true. Some attributes (like
locked) can be listed as a label
only or with a value depending upon whether a reason is available. The first
attribute of a working tree is always
worktree, an empty line indicates the
end of the record. For example:
$ git worktree list --porcelain worktree /path/to/bare-source bare worktree /path/to/linked-worktree HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234 branch refs/heads/master worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a detached worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-locked-no-reason HEAD 5678abc5678abc5678abc5678abc5678abc5678c branch refs/heads/locked-no-reason locked worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-locked-with-reason HEAD 3456def3456def3456def3456def3456def3456b branch refs/heads/locked-with-reason locked reason why is locked worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-prunable HEAD 1233def1234def1234def1234def1234def1234b detached prunable gitdir file points to non-existent location
If the lock reason contains "unusual" characters such as newline, they
are escaped and the entire reason is quoted as explained for the
core.quotePath (see git-config).
$ git worktree list --porcelain ... locked "reason\nwhy is locked" ...
You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use git-stash to store your changes away temporarily, however, your working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don’t want to risk disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked working tree to make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier refactoring session.
$ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master $ pushd ../temp # ... hack hack hack ... $ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss' $ popd $ git worktree remove ../temp
Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple checkouts of a superproject.
Part of the git suite