Setup and Config
Getting and Creating Projects
Branching and Merging
Sharing and Updating Projects
Inspection and Comparison
- Command-line interface conventions
- Everyday Git
- Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
- All guides...
- 2.42.0 08/21/23
- 2.39.1 → 2.41.0 no changes
- 2.39.0 12/12/22
- 2.36.1 → 2.38.5 no changes
- 2.36.0 04/18/22
- 2.35.1 → 2.35.8 no changes
- 2.35.0 01/24/22
- 2.33.1 → 2.34.8 no changes
- 2.33.0 08/16/21
- 2.31.1 → 2.32.7 no changes
- 2.31.0 03/15/21
- 2.30.1 → 2.30.9 no changes
- 2.30.0 12/27/20
- 2.29.1 → 2.29.3 no changes
- 2.29.0 10/19/20
- 2.28.1 no changes
- 2.28.0 07/27/20
git worktree add [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [--lock [--reason <string>]] [--orphan] [(-b | -B) <new-branch>] <path> [<commit-ish>] git worktree list [-v | --porcelain [-z]] git worktree lock [--reason <string>] <worktree> git worktree move <worktree> <new-path> git worktree prune [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>] git worktree remove [-f] <worktree> git worktree repair [<path>…] git worktree unlock <worktree>
Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.
A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check
out more than one branch at a time. With
git worktree add a new working
tree is associated with the repository, along with additional metadata
that differentiates that working tree from others in the same repository.
The working tree, along with this metadata, is called a "worktree".
This new worktree is called a "linked worktree" as opposed to the "main
worktree" prepared by git-init or git-clone.
A repository has one main worktree (if it’s not a bare repository) and
zero or more linked worktrees. When you are done with a linked worktree,
remove it with
git worktree remove.
In its simplest form,
git worktree add <path> automatically creates a
new branch whose name is the final component of
<path>, which is
convenient if you plan to work on a new topic. For instance,
worktree add ../hotfix creates new branch
hotfix and checks it out at
../hotfix. To instead work on an existing branch in a new worktree,
git worktree add <path> <branch>. On the other hand, if you just
plan to make some experimental changes or do testing without disturbing
existing development, it is often convenient to create a throwaway
worktree not associated with any branch. For instance,
git worktree add -d <path> creates a new worktree with a detached
at the same commit as the current branch.
If a working tree is deleted without using
git worktree remove, then
its associated administrative files, which reside in the repository
(see "DETAILS" below), will eventually be removed automatically (see
gc.worktreePruneExpire in git-config), or you can run
git worktree prune in the main or any linked worktree to clean up any
stale administrative files.
If the working tree for a linked worktree is stored on a portable device
or network share which is not always mounted, you can prevent its
administrative files from being pruned by issuing the
git worktree lock
command, optionally specifying
--reason to explain why the worktree is
- add <path> [<commit-ish>]
Create a worktree at
<commit-ish>into it. The new worktree is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except per-worktree files such as
index, etc. As a convenience,
<commit-ish>may be a bare "
-", which is synonymous with
<commit-ish>is a branch name (call it
<branch>) and is not found, and neither
--detachare used, but there does exist a tracking branch in exactly one remote (call it
<remote>) with a matching name, treat as equivalent to:
$ git worktree add --track -b <branch> <path> <remote>/<branch>
If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by the
checkout.defaultRemoteconfiguration variable, we’ll use that one for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the
<branch>isn’t unique across all remotes. Set it to e.g.
checkout.defaultRemote=originto always checkout remote branches from there if
<branch>is ambiguous but exists on the
originremote. See also
<commit-ish>is omitted and neither
--detachused, then, as a convenience, the new worktree is associated with a branch (call it
<branch>) named after
$(basename <path>). If
<branch>doesn’t exist, a new branch based on
HEADis automatically created as if
-b <branch>was given. If
<branch>does exist, it will be checked out in the new worktree, if it’s not checked out anywhere else, otherwise the command will refuse to create the worktree (unless
<commit-ish>is omitted, neither
--orphanis used, and there are no valid local branches (or remote branches if
--guess-remoteis specified) then, as a convenience, the new worktree is associated with a new orphan branch named
$(basename <path>)if neither
-Bis used) as if
--orphanwas passed to the command. In the event the repository has a remote and
--guess-remoteis used, but no remote or local branches exist, then the command fails with a warning reminding the user to fetch from their remote first (or override by using
List details of each worktree. The main worktree is listed first, followed by each of the linked worktrees. The output details include whether the worktree is bare, the revision currently checked out, the branch currently checked out (or "detached HEAD" if none), "locked" if the worktree is locked, "prunable" if the worktree can be pruned by the
If a worktree is on a portable device or network share which is not always mounted, lock it to prevent its administrative files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock with
Move a worktree to a new location. Note that the main worktree or linked worktrees containing submodules cannot be moved with this command. (The
git worktree repaircommand, however, can reestablish the connection with linked worktrees if you move the main worktree manually.)
Prune worktree information in
Remove a worktree. Only clean worktrees (no untracked files and no modification in tracked files) can be removed. Unclean worktrees or ones with submodules can be removed with
--force. The main worktree cannot be removed.
- repair [<path>…]
Repair worktree administrative files, if possible, if they have become corrupted or outdated due to external factors.
For instance, if the main worktree (or bare repository) is moved, linked worktrees will be unable to locate it. Running
repairin the main worktree will reestablish the connection from linked worktrees back to the main worktree.
Similarly, if the working tree for a linked worktree is moved without using
git worktree move, the main worktree (or bare repository) will be unable to locate it. Running
repairwithin the recently-moved worktree will reestablish the connection. If multiple linked worktrees are moved, running
repairfrom any worktree with each tree’s new
<path>as an argument, will reestablish the connection to all the specified paths.
If both the main worktree and linked worktrees have been moved manually, then running
repairin the main worktree and specifying the new
<path>of each linked worktree will reestablish all connections in both directions.
Unlock a worktree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.
addrefuses to create a new worktree when
<commit-ish>is a branch name and is already checked out by another worktree, or if
<path>is already assigned to some worktree but is missing (for instance, if
<path>was deleted manually). This option overrides these safeguards. To add a missing but locked worktree path, specify
moverefuses to move a locked worktree unless
--forceis specified twice. If the destination is already assigned to some other worktree but is missing (for instance, if
<new-path>was deleted manually), then
--forceallows the move to proceed; use
--forcetwice if the destination is locked.
removerefuses to remove an unclean worktree unless
--forceis used. To remove a locked worktree, specify
- -b <new-branch>
- -B <new-branch>
add, create a new branch named
<commit-ish>, and check out
<new-branch>into the new worktree. If
<commit-ish>is omitted, it defaults to
HEAD. By default,
-brefuses to create a new branch if it already exists.
-Boverrides this safeguard, resetting
HEADin the new worktree. See "DETACHED HEAD" in git-checkout.
--no-checkoutcan be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations, such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout" in git-read-tree.
worktree add <path>, without
<commit-ish>, instead of creating a new branch from
HEAD, if there exists a tracking branch in exactly one remote matching the basename of
<path>, base the new branch on the remote-tracking branch, and mark the remote-tracking branch as "upstream" from the new branch.
This can also be set up as the default behaviour by using the
When creating a new branch, if
<commit-ish>is a branch, mark it as "upstream" from the new branch. This is the default if
<commit-ish>is a remote-tracking branch. See
--trackin git-branch for details.
Keep the worktree locked after creation. This is the equivalent of
git worktree lockafter
git worktree add, but without a race condition.
prune, do not remove anything; just report what it would remove.
add, make the new worktree and index empty, associating the worktree with a new orphan/unborn branch named
list, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts. This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user configuration. It is recommended to combine this with
-z. See below for details.
Terminate each line with a NUL rather than a newline when
--porcelainis specified with
list. This makes it possible to parse the output when a worktree path contains a newline character.
add, suppress feedback messages.
prune, report all removals.
list, output additional information about worktrees (see below).
- --expire <time>
prune, only expire unused worktrees older than
list, annotate missing worktrees as prunable if they are older than
- --reason <string>
add --lock, an explanation why the worktree is locked.
Worktrees can be identified by path, either relative or absolute.
If the last path components in the worktree’s path is unique among worktrees, it can be used to identify a worktree. For example if you only have two worktrees, at
def/ghiis enough to point to the former worktree.
When using multiple worktrees, some refs are shared between all worktrees,
but others are specific to an individual worktree. One example is
which is different for each worktree. This section is about the sharing
rules and how to access refs of one worktree from another.
In general, all pseudo refs are per-worktree and all refs starting with
refs/ are shared. Pseudo refs are ones like
HEAD which are directly
$GIT_DIR instead of inside
$GIT_DIR/refs. There are exceptions,
however: refs inside
refs/worktree are not shared.
Refs that are per-worktree can still be accessed from another worktree via
two special paths,
worktrees. The former gives
access to per-worktree refs of the main worktree, while the latter to all
resolve to the same value as the main worktree’s
refs/bisect/good respectively. Similarly,
worktrees/bar/refs/bisect/bad are the same as
By default, the repository
config file is shared across all worktrees.
If the config variables
core.worktree are present in the
common config file and
extensions.worktreeConfig is disabled, then they
will be applied to the main worktree only.
In order to have worktree-specific configuration, you can turn on the
worktreeConfig extension, e.g.:
$ git config extensions.worktreeConfig true
In this mode, specific configuration stays in the path pointed by
rev-parse --git-path config.worktree. You can add or update
configuration in this file with
git config --worktree. Older Git
versions will refuse to access repositories with this extension.
Note that in this file, the exception for
is gone. If they exist in
$GIT_DIR/config, you must move
them to the
config.worktree of the main worktree. You may also take this
opportunity to review and move other configuration that you do not want to
share to all worktrees:
core.worktreeshould never be shared.
core.bareshould not be shared if the value is
core.sparseCheckoutshould not be shared, unless you are sure you always use sparse checkout for all worktrees.
See the documentation of
git-config for more details.
Each linked worktree has a private sub-directory in the repository’s
$GIT_DIR/worktrees directory. The private sub-directory’s name is usually
the base name of the linked worktree’s path, possibly appended with a
number to make it unique. For example, when
git worktree add /path/other/test-next next creates the linked
/path/other/test-next and also creates a
$GIT_DIR/worktrees/test-next directory (or
test-next is already taken).
Within a linked worktree,
$GIT_DIR is set to point to this private
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next in the example) and
$GIT_COMMON_DIR is set to point back to the main worktree’s
/path/main/.git). These settings are made in a
.git file located at
the top directory of the linked worktree.
Path resolution via
git rev-parse --git-path uses either
$GIT_COMMON_DIR depending on the path. For example, in the
git rev-parse --git-path HEAD returns
rev-parse --git-path refs/heads/master uses
$GIT_COMMON_DIR and returns
since refs are shared across all worktrees, except
See gitrepository-layout for more information. The rule of
thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to
$GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something
git rev-parse --git-path to get the final path.
If you manually move a linked worktree, you need to update the
in the entry’s directory. For example, if a linked worktree is moved
/newpath/test-next and its
.git file points to
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next, then update
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/gitdir to reference
instead. Better yet, run
git worktree repair to reestablish the connection
To prevent a
$GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which
can be useful in some situations, such as when the
entry’s worktree is stored on a portable device), use the
git worktree lock command, which adds a file named
locked to the entry’s directory. The file contains the reason in
plain text. For example, if a linked worktree’s
.git file points
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next then a file named
/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next/locked will prevent the
test-next entry from being pruned. See
gitrepository-layout for details.
extensions.worktreeConfig is enabled, the config file
.git/worktrees/<id>/config.worktree is read after
worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the
details on a single line with columns. For example:
$ git worktree list /path/to/bare-source (bare) /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master] /path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
The command also shows annotations for each worktree, according to its state. These annotations are:
locked, if the worktree is locked.
prunable, if the worktree can be pruned via
git worktree prune.
$ git worktree list /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master] /path/to/locked-worktree acbd5678 (brancha) locked /path/to/prunable-worktree 5678abc (detached HEAD) prunable
For these annotations, a reason might also be available and this can be seen using the verbose mode. The annotation is then moved to the next line indented followed by the additional information.
$ git worktree list --verbose /path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master] /path/to/locked-worktree-no-reason abcd5678 (detached HEAD) locked /path/to/locked-worktree-with-reason 1234abcd (brancha) locked: worktree path is mounted on a portable device /path/to/prunable-worktree 5678abc1 (detached HEAD) prunable: gitdir file points to non-existent location
Note that the annotation is moved to the next line if the additional information is available, otherwise it stays on the same line as the worktree itself.
The porcelain format has a line per attribute. If
-z is given then the lines
are terminated with NUL rather than a newline. Attributes are listed with a
label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like
detached) are listed as a label only, and are present only
if the value is true. Some attributes (like
locked) can be listed as a label
only or with a value depending upon whether a reason is available. The first
attribute of a worktree is always
worktree, an empty line indicates the
end of the record. For example:
$ git worktree list --porcelain worktree /path/to/bare-source bare worktree /path/to/linked-worktree HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234 branch refs/heads/master worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a detached worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-locked-no-reason HEAD 5678abc5678abc5678abc5678abc5678abc5678c branch refs/heads/locked-no-reason locked worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-locked-with-reason HEAD 3456def3456def3456def3456def3456def3456b branch refs/heads/locked-with-reason locked reason why is locked worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-prunable HEAD 1233def1234def1234def1234def1234def1234b detached prunable gitdir file points to non-existent location
-z is used any "unusual" characters in the lock reason such as newlines
are escaped and the entire reason is quoted as explained for the
core.quotePath (see git-config).
$ git worktree list --porcelain ... locked "reason\nwhy is locked" ...
You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use git-stash to store your changes away temporarily, however, your working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don’t want to risk disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked worktree to make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier refactoring session.
$ git worktree add -b emergency-fix ../temp master $ pushd ../temp # ... hack hack hack ... $ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss' $ popd $ git worktree remove ../temp
Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple checkouts of a superproject.
Part of the git suite